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Blonde Ashley

Sometimes it's good to be a little weird

Western Civilization: Renaissance Papacy and High Renaissance Artist

1.Though there were some popes during The Renaissance suited their position, many started having a decline in their morals. Many let political power go to their head. Some engaged in nepotism, broke celibacy, and neglected church reform.

Humanist popes such as Nicholas V and Leo X were so focused on collecting arts and cultivating scholarships that they practically neglected their duty as a pope. Many practiced nepotism, whenever you appoint family members that are unworthy of the position. Innocent VIII and Alexander VI both had affairs and children during their reigns. Martin V, Pius, Paul II, Sixtus IV, and Julius II had some more morals but still had the tendency to be war oriented.

2. Probably the Renaissance artist that you’re most familiar with would be Leonardo DaVinci. He was an architect, sculptor, and painter. We can see his beautiful works such as, The Last Supper, The Virgin of the Rocks, and most notably The Mona Lisa.

Raphael was portrait painter. He is most well known for having painted fifty portraits of Madonna and The Entombment of Christ.

Michelangelo was a great sculptor who carved the 17 foot tall sculptor of David and The Pieta. But what he is probably best known for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

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Western Literature:Which Is More Gripping

In Boccaccio’s Decameron a piece of Renaissance literature. It marks the end of the Dark Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance. It begins with Boccaccio describing the Black Death and how it affected society. He uses this to set the stage for his fictional stories. Then switching to the fictional he introduces seven young women and three young men. These people runaway and tell each other stories. The book then switches to all the stories they told each other.

The themes in these stories are reason, fortune, and sincerity in faith. Many of the stories involve someone who has really bad luck. Then they end up having really good luck in the end. Though in these later stories it seems as though Boccaccio might be replacing God’s sovereignty with natural law and reason.

I found them about equally gripping. Though reading about the plague was very sad, I found learning about how it affected society interesting. And while reading the stories I found it interesting to learn about how the Renaissance charged the way of thinking.

Biology: Marine Animals

Fish that live in saltwater only drink saltwater. They get rid of extra chloride ions through the gills or kidney. Extra sodium follows the chloride, this way they never have too much salt in their bodies.

Fresh water fish on the other hand have to work to make sure they have enough salt. Since they drink little water and the water they drink doesn’t really have salt they have to eat food that has salt.

Salmon are an example of osmoregulators, they can live in both. Their bodies work like other fresh water animals in fresh water. Then when they are in salt water they produce cortisol. This makes the chloride cells grow; the bigger chloride cells secrete more salt and the salt will leave through the gills of the fish.

Western Civilization: Machiavelli’s Views and Early Renaissance Art.

1. A man named Machiavelli wrote a book called The Prince the book is a guide fro proper political behavior. This book shows how different he thought then the traditional religious views. he believed that the state and state law were higher than anything else. They had complete power. He says the pope has absolutely no power to make any political decisions. He states ” a prince must always be willing to act immorally when it becomes necessary.” Machiavelli mentioned that a prince has the right to be ruthless, inhumane, and unjust whenever he sees fit. But don’t worry, he says it should only be done when necessary. Who says when it’s necessary? the prince. He also stated a prince should be feared, not loved by the people, but not hated, we don’t want a rebellion.

2. Renaissance art is quite different than the Medieval art. During the Renaissance art had more emphasis on individualism, realism and perspective. Also more color was used in art during the Renaissance.

Mosaccio didn’t live very long but during his short life he created some beautiful paintings. The Holy Trinity  Fresco is a painting of Christ on the cross.

Botticelli is an other well known Renaissance painter. Probably his best known painting is The Birth of Venus.

Brunelleschi was a sculptor and architect. He came up with a way to build domes. You can see his work if you go to Duomo Cathedral in Florence.

 

Western Literature: Boccaccio

In Boccaccio book The Decameron he famously documents the arrival of The Black Death in Florence. He described how it affected people and how long they had until they would die.

After telling how the plague affected the entire city he zoomed in on seven fictional young noble women, after a while three you men joined them. They collectively decided to go to an abandoned estate outside the city to escape the plague. They took servants and belongings and spent their days being merry.

After being there a bit, they decided they would take turns telling stories. The first story delivered quite the story. The story was about a man who spent his life doing bad things. He foraged documents, lied, and quite possibly killed someone. On his death bed he asked to speak to a friar to confess his sins. However he only confessed his minor sins. This left the friar with the impression that he was basically a saint.  Thinking those few petty sins were so bad he needed to confess them. The towns people even expected him to start performing miracles. Before long they were even praying to him!

I think Boccaccio had the storyteller invoke God to kind of set a feel for the book.

Western Civilization: The Renaissance and Petrarch

1. Renaissance is often associated with “rebirth”, but the rebirth of what? One of the most important things that got re-birthed was ancient classical work. Throughout time Greek drama, poetry, art, and Latin works were almost forgotten. Many works were just sitting on monastery bookshelves collecting dust. But then in the 14th century Humanism was introduced. This brought renewed interest in ancient works. Humanist passionately believed university students should be exposed to and study liberal arts such as poetry, art, drama ect….. This made the students have the ability to feel more individualized.

2. Petrarch is often known as “The Father of Humanism.” Growing up, his father wanted him to study law, so he did. But he couldn’t shake his love for classics such as Cicero and Horace. After his father died he abandoned law studied what he loved. He also wrote literature. His vision of Laura, a woman he saw, was used as an example for true love was. However, while speaking of true love he mentioned his own name more he mentioned hers. This again lets on to how much individualism was praised during this time.

Western Literature: Two Literary Works.

The Song of Roland and The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi are ancient literary pieces are targeted towards Christians. They are very different though. The Song of Roland is about war and fighting, in the name of the Christian God: but it still has some examples of how Christians should act. Little Flowers on the other hand, is targeted directly at friars; to be specific Franciscan friars.

Despite being different in these ways Christian law holds strong positions in both stories; mainly heaven and hell. The righteous will go to heaven and the unrighteous will go to hell.

In The Song of Roland crusading plays a big part. Popes said it could be a way of paying penance for your sins. They also crusaded to try to convert the Muslims to Christianity. They would pray during the war, they had faith, confidence, and bravery, they were confident God was on their side.

In The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi  they had nothing to do with war. But they still had penance, the friars would inflict it on themselves. In here they didn’t try to force people to be converted, they tried to persuade them to become Christians. St. Francis was given the ability perform miracles. Also the Franciscan communicate with angels.

But one of the main differences between the two is this: In The Song of Roland they made a deal with the Muslim king in which Charlemagne would receive gold, so they had money on their mind. In The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi the were focused on poverty and owning nothing.

Despite their differences, both stories say that loving and obeying God is important, and that is true.

Biology: Fish

Counter-current is a form of gas exchange that fish use to breathe. This means that water passes over the gills is the opposite direction that the blood flows through the fish. This causes the water to reach the blood with a lower Po2 level. This helps the fish draw up to 80% of the oxygen out of the water they use. This compared to the 25% of oxygen that humans get out of the air we breath.

Western Civilization: Wycliffe and The 100 Years’ War.

1. John Wycliffe lived from 1320-1384, he was an English priest and a professor at Oxford University. However he turned from several traditional Catholic teachings and proposed his own beliefs. For one, he believed that the state had supremacy over the church. Most Catholics either believed that they were equal or the church was over the state. Another non-Catholic belief Wycliffe had was he believed that God chose everybody’s fate before they were even born. Wycliffe proposed that if a person did good things it might indicate that he is predestined for heaven.

2. The Hundred Years’ War started because the French and English fought over the French crown. Edward III decided he should rule England and France, he thought this because he was the grandson of Philip IV of France. But the French didn’t like that idea. Eventually, was broke out. This lead to a hundred years of war. It consisted of multiple intermediate battles and truces. It was mostly English victories but one of the time France won was a battle under the rule of Charles VII in 1453. The consequences of the war are this: The French conquered England and established their independence. And England lost any ruling they had over France except for Calias and the English Canal

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